金盾信安官网|网络安全|等级测评机构|河南金盾信安

扎克伯格:互联网监管的四大理念

发布时间:2019-04-03 14:51:26   浏览次数:12275

  Technology is a major part of our lives, and companies such as Facebook have immense responsibilities. Every day we make decisions about what speech is harmful, what constitutes political advertising,and how to prevent sophisticated cyberattacks. These are important for keepingour community safe. But if we were starting from scratch, we wouldn’t ask companies to make these judgments alone.

  科技已经成为人类生活的重要组成部分,类似像Facebook这样的公司,它们肩负着巨大的责任。每天我们都要判断什么是有害的言论信息,什么是政治广告,以及如何防止复杂的网络攻击。对此,我们不断地采取措施,因为这对维护我们社会的安全太重要了。但是Facebook不是从零开始,我们希望互联网企业都能独自做出这些判断。

20190403144436.png

  I believe we need a more active role forgovernments and regulators. By updating the rules for the internet, we can preserve what’s best about it — the freedom for people to express themselves and for entrepreneurs to build new things — while also protecting society frombroader harms.

  我认为,网络的监管需要政府和监管机构发挥更积极的作用。通过创新互联网的监管规则,积极发挥互联网的优势——让公民享有表达言论的自由,让创业者有创造新事物的自由,但与此同时,我们必须要保障社会免受更广泛的网络侵害。

  From what I’ve learned, I believe we neednew regulation in four areas: harmful content, election integrity, privacy and data portability.

  根据本人的认知和了解,我认为监管部门应当在以下四个方面制定新的规则:一是对有害信息的监管,二是对影响公正选举广告的监管,三是对个人隐私和数据保护的监管,四是应当依法确保数据的可迁移。

  First, harmful content. Facebook giveseveryone a way to use their voice, and that creates real benefits — fromsharing experiences to growing movements. As part of this, we have aresponsibility to keep people safe on our services. That means deciding what counts as terrorist propaganda, hate speech and more. We continually review our policies with experts, but at our scale we’ll always make mistakes and decisions that people disagree with.

  第一,关于对有害信息的监管。Facebook为每个人提供了一个充分表达自己思想和观点的平台,从分享各自的经验到我们不断推出的各项活动,我们给大家带来了收获。在给大家带来收获的同时,我们有责任确保我们服务的每一个用户享有更安全的网络环境。这就意味着,我们要判断什么是恐怖主义宣传,什么是仇恨的言论等信息内容。为此,我们不断地与专家一起审查和评估我们的监管政策,但鉴于Facebook平台的规模太大,因此,我们做出的决策总有不尽人意之处,也无法满足广大用户的需求。

  Lawmakers often tell me we have too muchpower over speech, and frankly I agree. I’ve come to believe that we shouldn’t make so many important decisions about speech on our own. So we’re creating an independent body so people can appeal our decisions. We’re also working with governments, including French officials, on ensuring the effectiveness of content review systems.

  一些立法者经常告诫我,Facebook在控制言论方面有拥有巨大的权力,坦率地说,我表示同意。然而,我开始认识到,我们不应该独自拥有如此大的权力,而做出如此多的重大决策。为此,我们正在建立一个独立的机构,让用户可以对我们的决定提出意见。我们还与各国政府(包括法国官员)进行合作,确保内容审查系统的有效性。

  Internet companies should be accountable forenforcing standards on harmful content. It’s impossible to remove all harmfulcontent from the internet, but when people use dozens of different sharing services — all with their own policies and processes — we need a more standardized approach.

  互联网公司有责任实施对有害信息治理的标准,并采取相应的行动。作为一个互联网公司,要删除所有的网络有害信息是不可能的,但当人们使用几十种不同的共享服务时——每种服务都有自己的规定和流程——我们需要一个更加一体化的标准模式。

  One idea is for third-party bodies to setstandards governing the distribution of harmful content and measure companiesagainst those standards. Regulation could set baselines for what’s prohibitedand require companies to build systems for keeping harmful content to a bareminimum.

  我有一个想法,就是让第三方机构制定系列控制有害信息分布与传播的标准,并根据这些标准去检查和监管互联网公司的合规行为。规则可以为禁止有害内容设置红线,并要求互联网公司建立必要的体系,将有害内容控制在最低的限度内。

  Facebook already publishes transparency reports on how effectively we’re removing harmful content. I believe every major internet service should do this quarterly, because it’s just as importantas financial reporting. Once we understand the prevalence of harmful content,we can see which companies are improving and where we should set the baselines.

  Facebook已经发布了有关Facebook如何有效删除有害信息的透明度报告。我以为,每一个大型的互联网服务企业,都有义务每季度发布一次类似的透明度报告,因为这样的透明度报告与公司的财务报告同等重要。一旦我们了解到有害信息传播的范围和程度,我们就能发现那些互联网公司正在改进,以便确定我们应该在哪些领域设置监管。

  Second, legislation is important forprotecting elections. Facebook has already made significant changes around political ads: Advertisers in many countries must verify their identities before purchasing political ads. We built a searchable archive that shows whopays for ads, what other ads they ran and what audiences saw the ads. However,deciding whether an ad is political isn’t always straightforward. Our systems would be more effective if regulation created common standards for verifying political actors.

  第二,关于立法对保护选举的重要性。Facebook已经在治理政治广告方面做出了多项重大的变革:我们对许多国家的广告商在购买政治广告之前,设立了身份验证环节。我们建立了一个可搜索的档案系统,这个系统可以查找谁支付的广告费用,以及他们经营的其他广告业务和这些广告的目标客户。然而,界定一个广告是否具有政治目,并不是一件容易的事情。但是,如果监管部门能制定一个规则,并就创立一个核查政治参与者的统一标准,我们这个系统将会变得更加有效。

  Online political advertising laws primarilyfocus on candidates and elections, rather than divisive political issues where we’ve seen more attempted interference. Some laws only apply during elections,although information campaigns are non stop. And there are also importantquestions about how political campaigns use data and targeting. We believelegislation should be updated to reflect the reality of the threats and setstandards for the whole industry.

  当前,网络政治广告法案主要关注的是候选人和选举本身,并没有关注到有关分裂性的政治问题,但我们却发现此类的政治性干预活动越来越多。目前的法案仅仅适用于选举期间的选举活动,但这些干预选举的信息活动却一直没有间断。此外,有关政治活动如何使用数据以及这些数据的定位与目标也存在诸多重大问题。我们以为,政府监管部门应该更新立法观念,制定全新的监管法案以适应当前的威胁,并为整个行业的健康发展制定系列标准。

  Third, effective privacy and data protectionneeds a globally harmonized framework. People around the world have called forcomprehensive privacy regulation in line with the European Union’s General Data Protection. Regulation, and I agree. I believe it would be good for the internet if more countries adopted regulation such as GDPR as a common framework.

  第三,关于有效的隐私和数据保护。这需要构建一个全球统一的框架。世界各地的人们都在呼吁,根据欧盟的《通用数据保护条例》(GDPR),制定一个全面的隐私保护法规。对此,本人非常赞同以上呼吁。我相信,如果更多的国家采用像GDPR这样的规则作为一个共同的框架,这将有利于互联网的健康发展。

  New privacy regulation in the United Statesand around the world should build on the protections GDPR provides. It should protect your right to choose how your information is used — while enablingcompanies to use information for safety purposes and to provide services. It shouldn’t require data to be stored locally, which would make it more vulnerable to unwarranted access. And it should establish a way to hold companies,such as Facebook accountable by imposing sanctions when we make mistakes.

  美国和世界各国的新隐私监管法案,应当建立在GDPR提供保护的基础上。新隐私保护法案应当保护用户个人的选择权,即用户个人有权决定其个人隐私信息如何被利用。同时,也能促使互联网公司在基于安全目的前提下,使用这些信息并提供相应的服务。这些新的法案不应该要求将数据仅存储在本地,这会导致数据更容易受到未经授权的访问。新法案应该建立一种监管方式,通过对我们所犯错误时的制裁,让Facebook等公司承担起责任。

  I also believe a common global framework —rather than regulation that varies significantly by country and state — will ensure that the internet does not get fractured, entrepreneurs can build products that serve everyone, and everyone gets the same protections.

我还相信,互联网是全球的,应当制定一个适用于全球通用的隐私保护框架,而不是各个国家和地区各自为政的法规,这样才能确保国际互联网不会崩溃,企业家们可以开发服务于人类的各类产品,但每个人在享有这些产品的同时,他们的权益必须得到充分保护。

  As lawmakers adopt new privacy regulations,I hope they can help answer some of the questions GDPR leaves open. We needclear rules on when information can be used to serve the public interest and how it should apply to new technologies such as artificial intelligence.

  随着立法者采纳新的隐私保护规则,我希望他们能协助GDPR完善一些其本身尚未解决的问题。我们需要明确界定,信息何时可以用于为公众利益的服务,以及如何应用于类似人工智能等新技术领域。

  Finally, regulation should guarantee theprinciple of data portability. If you share data with one service, you shouldbe able to move it to another. This gives people choice and enables developersto innovate and compete. This is important for the internet — and for creatingservices people want. It’s why we built our development platform. True data portability should look more like the way people use our platform to sign intoan app than the existing ways you can download an archive of your information.But this requires clear rules about who’s responsible for protecting information when it moves between services.

  第四,应当依法保障数据的可迁移原则。如果您与某项服务共享数据,那么您也应该能够将该数据迁移到另一项服务。数据的可迁移原则不仅能够为用户提供选择服务的权利,也能促使开发者创新和竞争。这不仅对于互联网的发展非常重要,同时也可构建用户想要的服务。这就是为什么我们要构建开发平台的原因,真正的数据可移植性应该是类似用户使用我们的平台登录某款应用程序,而不是目前的那种下载信息存档的方式,但这需要制定明确的规则,确认当数据在服务提供者之间转移时,由谁来负责对数据移转的保护。

  This also needs common standards, which is why we support a standard data transferformat and the open source Data Transfer Project.

  这就需要制定通用的标准,这就是为什么Facebook支持标准数据传输格式和开源数据传输项目的原因。

  I believe Facebook has a responsibility to help address these issues, and I’mlooking forward to discussing them with lawmakers around the world. We’ve built advanced systems for finding harmful content, stopping election interferenceand making ads more transparent. But people shouldn’t have to rely on individual companies addressing these issues by themselves. We should have abroader debate about what we want as a society and how regulation can help.These four areas are important, but, of course, there’s more to discuss.

  我相信,Facebook有责任帮助解决这些问题,我本人也期待着与世界各地的立法者讨论这些问题。我们已经建立了先进的系统来查找这些有害信息,并阻止选举干扰,以及使网络广告更透明。但人们不应该依赖个别公司自己去解决这些问题,我们应该展开更广泛的讨论,作为一个社会,我们想要什么,以及监管部门如何帮助我们去解决这些问题。

当然,尽管互联网的监管具有诸多的问题值得我们去探索和改进,但是以上这四大领域问题是当务之急要解决的问题。

  The rules governing the internet allowed a generation of entrepreneurs to build services that changed the world and created a lot of value in people’s lives.It’s time to update these rules to define clear responsibilities for people,companies and governments going forward.

  互联网的管理与运行规则已经使得一代企业家建立了改变世界的服务,而且为人类的生活创造了巨大的价值。然而,现在应该是更新这些规则的时候了,新规则应当明确个人、企业和政府对未来网络空间的共同责任与使命。